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The United States of America is a constitutional federal republic consisting fifty states and a federal district, as well as several territories, spread over the Caribbean and Pacific. The country is situated in central North America and lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest , with Canada to its east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait, and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific.

The USA offers some tremendous opportunities for immigrants but also has one of the most complicated systems of Immigration in the world.
H-1B Visa

The US Government introduced the H1B visa to give the opportunity to highly skilled International Professionals and International Students to live and work in the USA.
The H1B is the most popular and sought after US work visa and US Immigration requires 'every' foreign national to obtain a visa in order to legally work in America.
One of the main advantages of the H1B visa is that it is a 'dual intent' visa which means that you can apply for a Green Card (Legal Permanent Residency).

The Process to obtain an H1B Visa is:

Step 1 - you must 'first' find an H1B Job with a US Employer (known as your "sponsor")

Step 2 - your Employer will file your H1B Visa Application with the US Immigration Bureau , individuals can NOT sponsor or apply for their own H1B visa. Only an Employer can.

To Qualify for the H1B Visa Program, you must work in a 'specialty occupation':
The core Specialty Occupations include:
IT, Computing, Finance, Accounting, Banking, Marketing, Advertising, PR, Sales, Recruiting, Engineering (all types), Teaching, HealthCare/Medical, Legal, Lawyers, Networking, Telecoms, Business, Management .
An H1B visa is typically valid for up to six (6) years and entitles your spouse (husband/wife) and children (under 21) to accompany you and live in the USA on an H4 visa. The H4 dependent visa does not allow your spouse/children to work (unless they get their own H1B visa).

Generally, the H-1B visa is designed to enable US employers hire foreign workers in specialty occupations on a temporary basis. A specialty occupation is one that requires
(a) the theoretical and practical application of a body of highly specialized knowledge and
(b) the attainment of a bachelor or higher degree in the specific specialty (or its equivalent) as a minimum for entry into the occupation in the US.
The H-1B quota for standard cap cases has been exhausted for the Fiscal year 2008-09. The earliest a new application can be filed is April 1, 2009 . This does not affect H-1B transfers or advanced degree H-1B or then exempt H-1B cases.
If you are interested to apply for H1b Visa and looking for a sponsorer contact us at globaljobs@myabroadstudies.com

How to Obtain an H-1B Visa ?

Each H-1B case must be well documented with supporting evidence proving that all legal requirements are met.

The employer's first step is to obtain an approved Labor Condition Application, which describes the position and the salary and also contains various attestations by the US employer.

The employer then files a petition with the Citizenship and Immigration Services at one of the four regional Service Centers.

Once this is approved, the next step is normally for the candidate to obtain an H-1B visa from the applicable US Consulate or Embassy.

Dependents of the H-1B holder (spouses and children) may obtain H-4 visas that will allow them to stay in the US with the H-1B visa holder.

There are some eligibility criteria for applying for H1B Visa
You must have ONE of the following:

First
1) A bachelor's degree or higher degree (or foreign equivalent) in the specialty field, OR
2) At least 12 years progressive work experience in their specialty field, OR
3) A license to practice in the chosen occupation (if such a license is required to practice), OR
4) A mix of further education (e.g Diploma) and work experience to total 12 years.
** typically 1 year of Higher Education (at a University/College) Equals 3 years work experience.

Second

You also need to work in what is termed as a 'Specialty Occupation':

Occupations In Architecture, Engineering, And Surveying
Architectural Occupations,
Aeronautical Engineering Occupations,
Electrical/ Electronics Engineering Occupations,
Civil Engineering Occupations,
Ceramic Engineering Occupations,
Mechanical Engineering Occupations,
Chemical Engineering Occupations,
Mining And Petroleum Engineering Occupations,
Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Occupations,
Industrial Engineering Occupations,
Agricultural Engineering Occupations,
Marine Engineering Occupations,
Nuclear Engineering Occupations,
Drafters,
Surveying/ Cartographic Occupations, Other Occupations In Architecture, Engineering, And Surveying.

Occupations In Mathematics And Physical Sciences
Occupations In Mathematics,
Occupations In Astronomy,
Occupations In Chemistry,
Occupations In Physics,
Occupations In Geology,
Occupations In Meteorology,
Other Occupations In Mathematics And Physical Sciences

Computer Science & IT, and Telecom Occupations
Occupations In Systems Analysis And Programming,
Occupations In Data Communications And Networks,
Occupations In Computer System User Support,
Occupations In Computer System Technical Support,
Other Computer-Related Occupations
Occupations In Life Sciences
Occupations In Agricultural Sciences,
Occupations In Biological Sciences,
Occupations In Psychology,
Other Occupations In Life Sciences

Occupations In Medicine And Health
Physicians And Surgeons,
Osteopaths,
Dentists,
Veterinarians,
Pharmacists,
Registered Nurses,
Therapists,
Dieticians,
Occupations In Medical And Dental Technology,
Other Occupations In Medicine And Health

Occupations In Education & Research
Occupations In College And University Education,
Occupations In Secondary School Education,
Occupations In Preschool, Primary School, And Kindergarten Education,
Occupations In Education Of Persons With Disabilities, Home Economists And Farm Advisers,
Occupations In Vocational Education,
Other Occupations In Education

Occupations in Writing and Languages
Writers,
Editors: Publication, Broadcast, And Script,
Other Occupations In Writing

Occupations in Finance and Administrative Specializations
Accountants, Auditors, And Related Occupations,
Budget And Management Systems Analysis Occupations,
Purchasing Management Occupations,
Sales And Distribution Management Occupations,
Advertising Management Occupations,
Public Relations Management Occupations,
Personnel Administration Occupations,
Inspectors And Investigators, Managerial And Public Service,
Other Administrative Occupations

Occupations in Business Management & Administration
Agriculture, Forestry And Fishing Industry Managers And Officials,
Mining Industry Managers And Officials,
Construction Industry Managers And Officials,
Manufacturing Industry Managers And Officials,
Transportation, Communication, And Utilities Industry Managers And Officials,
Wholesale And Retail Trade Managers And Officials,
Finance, Insurance, And Real Estate Managers And Officials
Service Industry Managers And Officials,
Public Administration Managers And Officials,
Miscellaneous Managers And Officials

OTHER Specialty Occupations as listed below
Occupations In Economics,
Occupations In Political Science,
Occupations In History,
Occupations In Sociology,
Occupations In Anthropology,
Other Occupations In Social Sciences,
Librarians,
Archivists,
Museum Curators And Related Occupations,
Other Occupations In Museum, Library, And Archival Sciences,
Lawyers,
Judges,
Other Occupations In Law And Jurisprudence,
Clergy,
Other Occupations In Religion And Theology,
Commercial Artists: Designers And Illustrators, Graphic Arts,
Environmental, Product, And Related Designers,
Other Occupations In Art,
Occupations In Music,
Other Occupations In Entertainment And Recreation,
Occupations In Social And Welfare Work,
Miscellaneous Professional, Technical, And Managerial Occupations, Sales Promotion Occupations,
Fashion Models

New cancer diagnosis rates decreased from 1999 to 2005 by 0.8% a year, according to a newly released report by the National Cancer Institute, the US Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. In addition, death rates from cancer dropped an average of 1.8% each year from 2002 to 2005. The decline is primarily due to lower death rates from prostate and lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women and colorectal cancer in both sexes. It is the first time new cancer rates have dropped since statistics have been tracked.
Careful statistical analysis by researchers showed the downward trend in new cancer diagnosis spanned several years. Experts believe aggressive cancer prevention and treatment efforts are starting to bear results. New cases of colon cancer fell by more than 2% annually. By 2005, half of all adults 50 and older were being screened for colon cancer, up from 27% in 1987.

Cancer Treatment

New cases of lung cancer fell to the lowest level in more than 30 years and are attributed to the war on smoking finally paying off. The CDC reported the number of adults who smoke has dropped below 20%. "Lung cancer is the big one when it comes to cancer in the United States," said Dr. John Glaspy of UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.

All types of cancer did not see such positive trends, however. New cases are up for myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, melanoma and cancers of the liver, kidney and esophagus. In certain areas, like the Midwest or South, where states have not passed anti-smoking laws, the incidence and mortality from lung cancer actually increased.

Death rates for pancreatic cancer in women, esophageal cancer in men and liver cancer for both sexes were elevated. Liver cancer is associated with Hepatitis C and the incidence of Hep C rose after the drug use in the 1960’s and 70’s.

Further research is needed for cancers whose incidence has increased, the report said. Some highly lethal cancers such as pancreatic and brain cancer show that there is still much work to be done. There were also disparities according to race, socioeconomic status and geographic location.

Dr. Otis W. Brawley, chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society said, "The drop in incidence is something we have been waiting to see for a long time," And "the continuing drop in mortality is evidence once again of real progress made against cancer, reflecting real gains in prevention, early detection and treatment."

Currently, about 1.4 million Americans are diagnosed with cancer each year, and an estimated 560,000 die from it.

Scientists at the University of Liverpool will undertake a study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a UK-based screening trial for lung cancer. The study has been commissioned by the National institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment (NIHR HTA) programme.

Lung cancer kills more people worldwide than any other malignancy accounting for around 1.4 million deaths each year, and around 38,000 individuals are diagnosed with the disease in the UK each year.

Lung Cancer Symptoms and Treatment

"The number of deaths from lung cancer has fallen in past years in the UK and this is likely to be due to a decline in tobacco smoking, and possibly greater public awareness. However, there is a large ex-smoking population, who remain at high risk of developing lung cancer," says lead researcher Professor John Field, director of the Roy Castle Lung Cancer Research Programme, at the University of Liverpool.

"Screening to detect the disease before patients develop any symptoms is a method that urgently requires evaluation as surgical resection at an early stage of the disease remains the only realistic option for a cure."

The results of the feasibility study will be used to decide whether a pilot study and subsequently a full clinical trial should be commissioned. This would use computerised tomography (CT) to scan people at high-risk of developing lung cancer, and would look at both the benefits and the harms that could result from such a screening programme.

"If the results of the feasibility study are promising it will be important to undertake a randomised control trial to assess if CT scanning is the best way forward. Only then would evidence be available to show whether a National Lung cancer Screening Programme should be considered," says Professor Field.

"We are delighted that the HTA has decided to invest in this first stage, which will help inform whether it is feasible to conduct a full trial."

'Bush shoe' creates 100 new jobs









Their deployment as a makeshift missile robbed President George Bush of his dignity and landed their owner in jail. But the world's most notorious pair of shoes have yielded an unexpected bonanza for a Turkish shoemaker.

Ramazan Baydan, owner of the Istanbul-based Baydan Shoe Company, has been swamped with orders from across the world, after insisting that his company produced the black leather shoes which the Iraqi journalist Muntazar al-Zaidi threw at Bush during a press conference in Baghdad last Sunday.

Baydan has recruited an extra 100 staff to meet orders for 300,000 pairs of Model 271 - more than four times the shoe's normal annual sale - following an outpouring of support for Zaidi's act, which was intended as a protest, but led to his arrest by Iraqi security forces.

Orders have come mainly from the US and Britain, and from neighbouring Muslim countries, he said.

Around 120,000 pairs have been ordered from Iraq, while a US company has placed a request for 18,000. A British firm is understood to have offered to serve as European distributor for the shoes, which have been on the market since 1999 and sell at around £28 in Turkey. A sharp rise in orders has been recorded in Syria, Egypt and Iran, where the main shoemaker's federation has offered to provide Zaidi and his family with a lifetime's supply of shoes.

To meet the mood of the marketplace, Baydan is planning to rename the model "the Bush Shoe" or "Bye-Bye Bush".

"We've been selling these shoes for years but, thanks to Bush, orders are flying in like crazy. We've even hired an agency to look at television advertising," he said.

Zaidi has been in custody since the shoe-throwing incident, amid claims that he has been badly beaten. He faces a possible jail sentence for insulting a foreign leader, but has reportedly apologised and requested a pardon from Iraq's prime minister, Nouri al-Maliki.

Tips to Loss Your Weight

Green tea is now used in many health products globally; it is currently used primarily as an antioxidant but this is a complex herb that is still being researched. If you are looking to use green tea weight loss products, they're available in liquid form, for drinks, or tablets if you prefer; either way excess calories will be lost when used.

It has a wide range of benefits for the human metabolism but first and foremost, it has great anti-aging properties, accelerating cell regeneration and slowing the oxidation process in the system. Although it is the toxin removal and laxative qualities that help with weight loss when taken regularly. Our body loses more calories because it is speeded up thereby reducing the amount of fat tissue which would normally form.

Despite the success of green tea weight loss products, they cannot work on their own so the user must be responsible for what food they eat and any exercise they perform. For it to work, adjustments to diet and mental attitude are necessary for a person to become healthier, it is not just a case of losing weight.

Although green tea can be used at any time of the day and in many ways as a beverage, it is most effective when taken immediately before bed. Although it may at first seem a little scary, it has a strange effect on the body and as a consequence the stomach and bowls may not work as they should while you become accustomed to it during the first few days. This is not something to be concerned about as it only normally affects someone who has never taken green tea weight loss products before and then because the tea is improving the body's metabolism. Results are normally obvious within the first week, particularly if you complete the diet with physical exercise, lots of liquids and green food.

Extracts from the ginseng root are often mixed with green tea as combined; the two prove to be more effective. Used in Asia for thousands of years ginseng is well known and respected there and provides essential vitamins and minerals for good health when combined with those already found in the product.

When ginseng is used in association with green tea it stimulates the immune system and fortifies the user, representing a valuable energy source, during the stressful period when you are returning to normal weight. Natural products like green tea and ginseng are safe to use even on programs lasting up to 26 weeks at a time.

What is Linux?

Linux is a free Unix-type operating system originally created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of developers around the world. Developed under the GNU General Public License, the source code for Linux is freely available to everyone which is causing a major evolution in the world of computers. It outperforms other operating systems on similar hardware and is available on architectures ranging from a PDA to supercomputers.

A modern operating system like Linux is even easier to install and use than Microsoft® Windows™, especially given the reboot nightmares, viruses, worms, driver-update hassles and Service Pack annoyances that come with Microsoft® Windows™.

Linux and Open Source technologies have become the standard platform of choice for IT system deployment. Over seventy percent of the Internet is running on Open Source technologies and international vendors such as Sun, Novell and IBM are deploying Linux and Open Source.

With proven reliability, security by design and a world class reputation throughout the IT industry there really is no reason why you cannot move to Linux and freedom right now. Why wait for your next systems failure? Now is the time to start your move to Linux and Open Source.

Moving to the Linux platform does not require abandoning existing investments in Microsoft Windows applications and infrastructure. Linux runs on the same hardware and can run many of the Microsoft Windows applications, like OpenOffice. What makes this even more amazing is that Linux and Open Source applications are freely available to anyone who wishes to download them.

Why Move?

The big question for many corporate IT professionals and developers is "Why would I move from Windows to Linux?" Windows is well established in the enterprise computing space and applications currently deployed on Windows may be running just fine in their organisation.

However, many organisations are migrating from Windows and UNIX to the OSS Linux platform. They are moving in order to gain better business value, a greater choice of solutions, and richer capabilities for addressing their enterprise computing needs and abilities. This is what no proprietary vendor can do...

1. They don't have the hugely productive environment of KDE to program in.

2. They can't run development crews of the Open Source Community size without considerable investment.

3. They can't gather the input of thousands of users.

4. They can't design in such an open fashion as to remove all their hooks.

5. They can't make a product so extensible that it takes away their upgrade leverage.

6. They can't give it away for free.

And finally GOD created MAN

GOD created the DONKEY and told him, 'You will work tireless from sunrise up to sunset, carrying heavy bags on your back, you will eat grass. You will not have intelligence and you will live 50 years. You will be a DONKEY!'

The DONKEY answered, 'I will be a DONKEY, but living 50 years is too much, give me only 20 years!' and GOD gave him 20 years.

GOD created DOG and told him ' You will look after man's house, you will be his best friend, you will eat whatever they give you and you will live 25years, You will be a DOG!'

The DOG answered 'GOD, living 25 years is too much, give only 10 years!' and GOD gave him 10 years.

GOD created the MONKEY and told him, 'you will jump from branch to branch you will do silly things, you will be amusing and you will live 20 years, you will be a MONKEY!'

The MONKEY answered ' GOD, living 20 years is too much , give me only 10 years!' and GOD gave him 10 years.

Finally,

GOD created MAN and told him, 'you will be a MAN the only rational being on this earth and you will use your intelligence to control other animals, you will dominate the world and you will live for 20 years.

The MAN answered, GOD I will be a man but living 20 years is not enough, why don't you give me the 30 years that the DONKEY refused, the 15 years that the DOG didn't want and the 10 years that the MONKEY refused ?'

That was exactly what GOD did, and since then:

MAN lives 20 years like a MAN, then he gets married and spends 30 years like a DONKEY, working and carrying the load on his back. Then, when his children leave he spends 15 years like DOG looking after the house and eating whatever is given to him. Then he gets old, retires and spends 10 years like a MONKEY, jumping from house to house or from children to children, doing silly things to amuse his grandchildren!

Colour Swathi in love?


The bubbly young heroine of Ashta Chemma, colours Swathi is now a very popular and successful babe thanks to the big success the small film has achieved. Swathi played the role of a die hard prince Mahesh Babu fan in the film.

Nani played the lead role in the film. During the making of the film, Swathi and Nani became close friends. It is now heard that the two are now more than just close friends. But the parents of Swathi are not happy with the news and they are reported to have put restrictions on Swathi meeting Nani or going out with him.

India beat England by 158 runs in 1st ODI


RAJKOT: Yuvraj Singh marked his return to form with a swashbuckling unbeaten 138 as India recorded its biggest victory by runs against England by spanking the hapless visitors by 158 runs in the series-opening cricket one-dayer here today.

After rattling up a record total of 387 for five at home, the hosts then bundled out England for 229 in 37.4 overs in a lop-sided contest to take a 1-0 lead in the seven-match series.

India’s previous best victory margin by runs against England was 86 at Sydney in 1985 and their biggest margin is 257 runs against Bermuda at Port of Spain in 2007.

Yuvraj’s ninth ODI hundred spurred India to post its second-highest ODI total ever — well behind their 413-5 against Bermuda in the 2007 World Cup but ahead of its previous home record of 376-2 against New Zealand in 1999.

Clobbered by the in-form Indian bastmen, the English attack conceded more runs than ever in one-dayers, surpassing the 353-6 against Pakistan at Karachi in 2005. India’s highest previous total against England was 329-7 at Bristol in August 2007.

Yuvraj defied a troublesome back to roar back into form in great style as he plundered runs at will, belting as many as 16 boundaries and six sixes during his 78-ball massacre.

The dashing Virender Sehwag (85), Gautam Gambhir (51), Suresh Raina (43) and captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni (39) were the other notable performers after England captain Kevin Pietersen put India in to bat on a belter of a track at the Madhavrao Scindia stadium.


Scoreboard:

India:


Gautam Gambhir c Shah b Patel 51
Virender Sehwag c Bell b Patel 85
Suresh Raina c Collingwood b Flintoff 43
Yuvraj Singh not out 138
Yusaf Pathan c Bell b Harmison 0
Mahendra Singh Dhoni b Harmison 39
Rohit Sharma not out 11
Extras (b 1, lb 9, w 10) 20
Total (for five wickets in 50 overs) 387

Fall of wickets: 1-127 (Gambhir, 19.5 overs), 2-153 (Sehwag, 23.6), 3-242 (Raina, 36.5), 4-247 (Pathan, 37.3), 5-352 (Dhoni, 47.1)

Bowling:


James Anderson 8 0 52 0 (3w)
Stuart Broad 10 0 74 0 7.40 (4w)
Andrew Flintoff 10 0 67 1
Steve Harmison 10 0 75 2 (2w)
Samit Patel 9 0 78 2
Paul Collingwood 1 0 15 0
Kevin Pietersen 2 0 16 0 (1w)

England:


Ian Bell c Dhoni b Khan 25
Matt Prior c Sehwag b Patel 4
Owais Shah c Sehwag b Khan 0
Kevin Pietersen run out (Sharma/Dhoni) 63
Andrew Flintoff lbw b Khan 4
Paul Collingwood c Dhoni b Singh 19
Samit Patel st Dhoni b Harbhajan Singh 28
Ravi Bopara not out 54
Chris Broad c Gambhir b Sehwag 26
Steve Harmison run out (Harbhajan Singh/Dhoni) 0
James Anderson lbw b Pathan 0
Extras (lb 2, w 4) 6
Total (All out in 37.4 overs)229

Fall of wickets: 1-12 (Prior, 3.2 overs), 2-17 (Shah, 4.5), 3-34 (Bell, 10.3), 4-38 (Flintoff, 10.6), 5-76 (Collingwood, 17.4), 6-147 (Patel, 26.1), 7-150 (Pietersen, 27.1), 8-195 (Broad, 35.3), 9-207 (Harmison, 35.6), 10-229 (Anderson, 37.4)

Bowling:


Zaheer Khan 7 1 26 3
Munaf Patel 6 1 20 1
Rudra Pratap Singh 4 0 25 1(2w)
Yusuf Pathan 3.4 0 41 1
Virender Sehwag 9 0 68 1(2w)
Harbhajan Singh 8 0 47 1

Toss: England, chose to field first
Umpires: Ameish Saheba (India) and Russel Tiffin (Zimbabwe)
TV umpire: Suresh Shastri (India)
Match Referee: Roshan Mahanama (Sri Lanka)

Health & Fitness Tips...............


"He who has health has hope, and he who has hope has everything."


1. Move More
Make it a daily challenge to find ways to move your body. Climb stairs if given a choice between that and escalators or elevators. Walk your dog; chase your kids; toss balls with friends, mow the lawn. Anything that moves your limbs is not only a fitness tool, it's a stress buster. Think 'move' in small increments of time. It doesn't have to be an hour in the gym or a 45-minute aerobic dance class or tai chi or kickboxing. But that's great when you're up to it. Meanwhile, move more.
2.
Cut Fat
Avoid the obvious such as fried foods, burgers and other fatty meats (i.e. pork, bacon, ham, salami, ribs and sausage). Dairy products such as cheese, cottage cheese, milk and cream should be eaten in low fat versions. Nuts and sandwich meats, mayonnaise, margarine, butter and sauces should be eaten in limited amounts. Most are available in lower fat versions such as substitute butter, fat free cheeses and mayonnaise. Thought for the day: Lean, mean, fat-burning machine…. Then be one!

3.
Quit Smoking
The jury is definitely in on this verdict. Ever since 1960 when the Surgeon General announced that smoking was harmful to your health, Americans have been reducing their use of tobacco products that kill. Just recently, we've seen a surge in smoking in adolescents and teens. Could it be the Hollywood influence? It seems the stars in every movie of late smoke cigarettes. Beware. Warn your children of the false romance or 'tough guy' stance of Hollywood smokers. Thought for the day: Give up just one cigarette…. the next one.
4
. Reduce Stress
Easier said than done, stress busters come in many forms. Some techniques recommended by experts are to think positive thoughts. Spend 30 minutes a day doing something you like. (i.e.,Soak in a hot tub; walk on the beach or in a park; read a good book; visit a friend; play with your dog; listen to soothing music; watch a funny movie. Get a massage, a facial or a haircut. Meditate. Count to ten before losing your temper or getting aggravated. Avoid difficult people when possible. Thought for the day: When seeing red, think pink clouds….then float on them.

5
. Protect Yourself from Pollution
If you can't live in a smog-free environment, at least avoid smoke-filled rooms, high traffic areas, breathing in highway fumes and exercising near busy thoroughfares. Exercise outside when the smog rating is low. Exercise indoors in air conditioning when air quality is good. Plant lots of shrubbery in your yard. It's a good pollution and dirt from the street deterrent. Thought for the day: 'Smoke gets in your eyes'…and your mouth, and your nose and your lungs as do pollutants….hum the tune daily.

6.
Wear Your Seat Belt
Statistics show that seat belts add to longevity and help alleviate potential injuries in car crashes. Thought for the day: Buckle down and buckle up.

7.
Floss Your Teeth
Recent studies make a direct connection between longevity and teeth flossing. Nobody knows exactly why. Perhaps it's because people who floss tend to be more health conscious than people who don't? Thought for the day: Floss and be your body's boss.

8.
Avoid Excessive Drinking
While recent studies show a glass of wine or one drink a day (two for men) can help protect against heart disease, more than that can cause other health problems such as liver and kidney disease and cancer. Thought for the day: A jug of wine should last a long time.


9.
Keep a Positive Mental Outlook
There's a definitive connection between living well and healthfully and having a cheerful outlook on life. Thought for the day: You can't be unhappy when you're smiling or singing.

10.
Choose Your Parents Well
The link between genetics and health is a powerful one. But just because one or both of your parents died young in ill health doesn't mean you cannot counteract the genetic pool handed you. Thought for the day: Follow these basic tips for healthy living and you can better control your own destiny

Daily Exercise Suggestions

"To climb steep hills requires slow pace at first."


Walk 10 Minutes a Day and Increase Your Fitness Level Old thinking was to work out in a sweat-filled gym for hours a day. No pain, no gain. New studies show that even short bouts of activity can increase your fitness level, especially if you're new at working out.

Park and Walk
Whenever you have an errand, park your car as far away as you can handle and walk to the store. At the mall, park at the farthest end and walk the length of the mall. Use every opportunity to walk. At the end of the day, it all adds up to better fitness.

Crunch in Bed
Before you even get out of bed in the morning, do 10 stomach crunches while lying flat on your mattress. Increase daily by one until you get up to 100. Think you'll never get there? Try it. You may eventually have to set your clock to wake up 15 minutes earlier, a small price to pay for a flatter stomach.

DRINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH -RESEARCH BY CHINESE & JAPANESE

It is popular in Japan today to drink water immediately after waking up every morning. Furthermore, scientific tests have proven its value. We publish below a description of use of water for our readers. For old and serious diseases as well as modern illnesses the water treatment had been found successful by a Japanese medical society as a 100% cure for the following diseases:
Headache, body ache, heart system, arthritis, fast heart beat, epilepsy, excess fatness, bronchitis asthma, TB, meningitis, kidney and urine diseases, vomiting, gastritis, diarrhea, piles, diabetes, constipation, all eye diseases, womb, cancer and menstrual disorders, ear nose and throat diseases.


METHOD OF TREATMENT

1. As you wake up in the morning before brushing teeth, drink 4 x 160ml glasses of water
2. Brush and clean the mouth but do not eat or drink anything for 45 minute
3. After 45 minutes you may eat and drink as normal.
4. After 15 minutes of breakfast, lunch and dinner do not eat or drink anything for 2 hours
5. Those who are old or sick and are unable to drink 4 glasses of water at the beginning may commence by taking little water and gradually increase it to 4 glasses per day.
6. The above method of treatment will cure diseases of the sick and others can enjoy a healthy life.

The following list gives the number of days of treatment required to cure/control/ reduce main diseases:
1. High Blood Pressure (30 days)
2. Gastric (10 days)
3. Diabetes (30 days)
4. Constipation (10 days)
5. Cancer (180 days)
6. TB (90 days)
7. Arthritis patients should follow the above treatment only for 3 days in the 1st week, and from 2nd week onwards – daily.
This treatment method has no side effects, however at the commencement of treatment you may have to urinate a few times.

It is better if we continue this and make this procedure as a routine work in our life. Drink Water and Stay healthy and Active.

This makes sense .. The Chinese and Japanese drink hot tea with their meals ..not cold water. Maybe it is time we adopt their drinking habit while eating!!! Nothing to lose, everything to gain...

For those who like to drink cold water, this article is applicable to you.
It is nice to have a cup of cold drink after a meal. However, the cold water will solidify the oily stuff that you have just consumed. It will slow down the digestion.

Once this "sludge" reacts with the acid, it will break down and be absorbed by the intestine faster than the solid food. It will line the intestine.
Very soon, this will turn into fats and lead to cancer. It is best to drink hot soup or warm water after a meal.

A serious note about heart attacks:
· Women should know that not every heart attack symptom is going to be the left arm hurting,
· Be aware of intense pain in the jaw line.
· You may never have the first chest pain during the course of a heart attack.
· Nausea and intense sweating are also common symptoms.
· 60% of people who have a heart attack while they are asleep do not wake up.
· Pain in the jaw can wake you from a sound sleep. Let's be careful and be aware. The more we know, the better chance we could survive...

A cardiologist says if everyone who gets this mail sends it to everyone they know, you can be sure that we'll save at least one life.


Please be a true friend and send this article to all your friends you care about

Sir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur Fateh Jung - The Hyderabad King


Sir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur Fateh Jung, GCSI, GBE, (April 6, 1886February 24, 1967) , styled His Exalted Highness the Nizam of Hyderabad, also named Fath Jang Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan Asaf Jah VII, was the last Nizam (or ruler) of the Princely State of Hyderabad. He ruled Hyderabad between 1911 and 1948, until Hyderabad was invaded and annexed by India.

During his days as Nizam, he was reputed to be the richest man in the world, even featuring on the cover of TIME magazine, portrayed as such.[1] He had a fortune estimated at $2 billion. [2]

Although he was one of the richest men in the world along with his brother Nawab Sakawath Jung Bahadur, the Nizam led a very simple life. His lifestyle was frugal, bordering on the miserly, and many legends about his parsimony have become apocryphal in Hyderabad. He would , paradoxically, use the 185-carat Jacob Diamond as a paperweight.

He also built the magnificent Hyderabad House for his Delhi visits. This is now used for diplomatic meetings by the Government of India.

Official name

His Exalted Highness Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VII, Muzaffar-ul-Mulk-Wal-Mumilak, Nizam-ul-Mulk, Nizam ud Daula Nawab Mir Sir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur,Sipah Saula, Fateh Jung, Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India, Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire, Honorable Lieutenant General in the Army, Faithful Ally of the British Government.

His Exalted Highness was the honorary Colonel of the 20 Deccan Horse. In 1918, Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan was elevated by King George V from His Highness to His Exalted Highness. In a letter dated 24th January, 1918, the title Faithful Ally of the British Government was conferred on him.[3]

Early life and education

Osman Ali was born on April 6, 1886 at Purani Haveli in Hyderabad state, the second son of Mir Mahboob Ali Khan,Asaf Jah VI, by his first wife Amat-uz-Zahrunnisa Begum. The death of his elder brother in 1887 rendered Osman Ali the heir apparent of Hyderabad.

Great attention was paid to his education, and eminent scholars were engaged to teach Osman Ali English, Urdu and Persian. He was also tutored in Islamic studies by Hafiz Anwarullah Faruqi of the Jami'ah Nizamiyyah of Hyderabad.

Mir Osman Ali Khan was a great scholar and wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian.

Marriage

On April 14, 1906, Osman Ali married Dulhan Pasha Begum, daughter of Nawab Jahangir Jung, at Eden Bagh at the age 21. She was the first of his seven wives and 42 concubines, and the mother of two eldest of his sons Azam Jah and Moazzam Jah.

Their eldest son, Azam Jah, was married to Durru Shehvar, daughter of Abdul Mejid II (the last Ottoman Caliph and cousin and heir of the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire). Moazzam Jah married Princess Niloufer, a princess of the Ottoman empire.

It has been suggested that through this dynastic marriage Osman Ali hoped to acquire the Caliphate for his descendants.

Reign

A cover story by TIME
A cover story by Anil

On February 22, 1937, Time magazine called the Nizam the Richest man in the world. Osman Ali acceded as Nizam of Hyderabad upon the death of his father in 1911. The state of Hyderabad was the largest of the princely states in pre-independence India. With an area of 86,000 square miles (223,000 km²), it was roughly the size of present-day France. Its ruler, was the highest-ranking prince in India, was one of only five princes entitled to a 21-gun salute, held the unique title of "Nizam" and was created "His Exalted Highness" and "Faithful Ally of the British Crown" after World War One, in gratitude for his enormous financial contribution to the British Empire's war effort.

Osman Ali was the absolute ruler of this principality. In some accounts, he is held to have been a benevolent ruler who patronized education, science and development. Indeed, compared to his predecessors, Osman Ali's 37-year rule witnessed progress: electricity, railways, roads and airways were developed, the Nizamsagar lake in Hyderabad city was excavated and some irrigation projects on the Tungabhadra river were undertaken.

In 1941, Mir Osman Ali Khan started his own bank called as Hyderabad State Bank(now State Bank of Hyderabad) as the state's central bank, which managed the Osmania sikka, the currency of the Hyderabad state. It was the only state which had its own currency during the British rule.

Nearly all the major public buildings in Hyderabad city, such as the Osmania General Hospital, Andhra Pradesh High Court, Asafiya Library now called as State Central Library, Town Hall now called as Assembly Hall, Jubilee Hall, Hyderabad Museum now called as State Museum and many other monuments were built during his reign. Up to 11% of the Nizam's budget was spent on education, Osmania University was founded, schools and colleges and even a "Department for Translation were set up. Primary education was made compulsory and provided free for the poor. However, the Nizam (as also his predecessors) have been criticised for largely ignoring the native languages of the land ruled by them, and according primacy to Urdu, a language popularly associated with Muslim culture in India, as well as a language of prestige.

Osman Ali donated generously to many worthy institutions in India and abroad: recipients of his largesse included educational institutions such as the Jamia Nizamia, the Darul Uloom Deoband and the Banaras Hindu University.

Hyderabad was the only state in British India where the ruler was allowed to print the currency notes. A 100 rupee note was introduced in 1918.

He also paid for an Royal Australian Navy vessel, N-class destroyer, HMAS Nizam (G38) in 1940.

Osman Ali lived at King Kothi Palace all his life, since the age of 13, this palace was bought from a nobleman. He did not move to Chowmahalla Palace even after accession.

Abdication

After Indian independence in 1947, the country was partitioned on communal lines and Pakistan was carved out as a Muslim nation. The princely states were left free to make whatever arrangement they wished with either India or Pakistan. The Nizam ruled over a cosmopolitan population of over 16 million people, and over lands extending to 82,698 sq.miles of homogeneous territory. These advantages persuaded the Nizam to attempt an independent existence, when the British withdrew from the sub-continent in 1947. He refused to join either India or Pakistan, preferring to form a separate kingdom within the British Commonwealth of nations.

The proposal for independent state was rejected unambiguously by the British government. The Nizam then resolved upon exploring the possibility of independence. Towards this end, he kept up open negotiations with the Government of India regarding the modalities of a future relationship while opening covert negotiations with Pakistan on a similar vein. He also concurrently encouraged the activities of the Razakars, a militant Muslim organization under the leadership of Qasim Razvi that vehemently opposed any union with the Government of India. The Razakars were active in violently intimidating the local Hindu population and pledged to maintain the Muslim supremacy in Deccan and Hyderabad State. At the same time, thousands of Muslims flooded into Hyderabad, refugees of Hindu violence[citation needed]. An attempt by some Hindu nationalists to assassinate the Nizam did not help either[citation needed]. The Nizam repeatedly cited the Razakars as evidence that the people of the state were opposed to any agreement with India. This was held by the Government of India to be untenable and disingenuous, and in any case were most eager for Hyderabad to effect a merger with India.

Meanwhile, many peasants of the Hyderabad state revolted against the Nizam under the leadership of Communist Party of India. The Telangana peasant armed struggle was successful in driving out local landlords called Zamindars, and distributing their land to the landless. However, Nizam was able to suppress the armed struggle. It was a dark period in Hyderabad history.

However, majority of his subjects were Hindus and his territory was surrounded on all sides by Indian territory. The resulting violence and exodus of people outside of Hyderabad state prompted the new Indian government to invade and annex Hyderabad by police action in 1948. The violence fomented by Indian police action greatly exceeded that of the Razakars, resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands. Although the Nizam then acceded to the Dominion of India, power simply slipped from his grasp. He received the ceremonial post of Rajpramukh in 1950, but resigned from this office when the states were re-organised in 1956. Hyderabad was then split and dismembered along linguistic lines.

Later life

Mir Osman Ali Khan, the last Nizam, died on Friday, February 24, 1967. It was the end of a princely era. His funeral procession was one of the largest in Indian history, a testimony to his popularity. His Exalted Highness had willed that he be buried in the Judi Mosque that faced his fabulous residence, that is, the King Kothi Palace is his final resting place.

Iris Portal, sister of the British politician Rab Butler, described him as "...as mad as a coot and his chief wife was raving," who "spent money like water."

Celebration Means........

Celebration means...

Four friends.

raining outside.

Four glasses of Tea.

Celebration means...

Hundred bucks of petrol.

A rusty old bike.

And an open road.

Celebration means...

A hostel Tea.

A hostel room.

12 a.m.

Celebration means...

3 old friends.

3 separate cities.

3 coffee mugs.

1 internet messenger.

Celebration means...

Rain on a hot tin roof.

Pakodas deep-frying.

Neighbours dropping in.

A party.

Celebration means...

You and mom.

A summer night.

A bottle of coconut oil.

A head massage.

You can spend

Hundreds on birthdays,

Thousands on festivals,

Lakhs on weddings,

but to celebrate

all you have to do is spend your Time with your loved ones.

Keep in touch with those who care for you.....

Can Any One Beat This Resume

EDUCATION /Qualification:

1950 : Stood first in BA (Hons), Economics, Punjab University , Chandigarh ,
1952 : Stood first in MA (Economics), Punjab University , Chandigarh ,
1954 : Wright's Prize for distinguished performance at St John's
College , Cambridge ,
1955 - 57 : Wrenbury scholar, University of Cambridge ,
1957 : DPhil ( Oxford ), DLitt (Honoris Causa); PhD thesis on India
's export competitiveness

OCCUPATION /Teaching Experience:


Professor (Senior lecturer, Economics, 1957-59;
Reader, Economics, 1959-63;
Professor, Economics, Punjab University , Chandigarh , 1963-65;

Professor, Inter national Trade, Delhi School of Economics , University of Delhi , 1969-71;

Honorary professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University , New Delhi , 1976

and Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi ,1996 and Civil Servant



Working Experience/ POSITIONS:


1971-72: Economic advisor, ministry of foreign trade
1972-76: Chief economic advisor, ministry of finance
1976-80: Director, Reserve Bank of India ; Director, Industrial Development Bank of India ;
Alternate governor for India , Board of governors, Asian Development Bank;
Alternate governor for India , Board of governors, IBRD
November 1976 - April 1980: Secretary, ministry of finance (Department of economic affairs);
Member, finance, Atomic Energy Commission; Member, finance, Space Commission
April 1980 - September 15, 1982: Member- Secretary, Planning Commission
1980-83: Chairman , India Committee of the Indo-Japan joint study committee September 16, 1982 - January 14, 1985 : Governor, Reserve Bank of India ....
1982-85: Alternate Governor for India , Board of governors, International Monetary Fund
1983-84: Member, economic advisory council to the Prime Minister
1985: President, Indian Economic Association
January 15, 1985 - July 31, 1987 : Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission
August 1, 1987 - November 10, 1990: Secretary-general and commissioner, south commission, Geneva
December 10, 1990 - March 14, 1991 : Advisor to the Prime Minister on economic affairs
March 15, 1991 - June 20, 1991 : Chairman, UGC
June 21, 1991 - May 15, 1996: Union finance minister
October 1991: Elected to Rajya Sabha from Assam on Congress ticket
June 1995: Re-elected to Rajya Sabha
1996 onwards: Member, Consultative Committee for the ministry of finance
August 1, 1996 - December 4, 1997: Chairman, Parliamentary standing committee on commerce
March 21, 1998 onwards: Leader of the Opposition, Rajya Sabha
June 5, 1998 onwards: Member, committee on finance
August 13, 1998 onwards: Member, committee on rules
Aug 1998-2001: Member, committee of privileges 2000 onwards: Member, executive committee, Indian parliamentary group
June 2001: Re-elected to Rajya Sabha
Aug 2001 onwards: Member, general purposes committee

BOOKS:

India 's Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth -Clarendon
Press, Oxford University , 1964; also published a large number of articles in various economic journals.

OTHER ACCOMPLISHMENTS:

Adam Smith Prize, University of Cambridge , 1956
Padma Vibhushan, 1987
Euro money Award, Finance Minister of the Year, 1993;
Asia money Award, Finance Minister of the Year for Asia , 1993 and 1994

INTERNATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS:


1966: Economic Affairs Officer
1966-69: Chief, financing for trade section, UNCTAD
1972-74: Deputy for India in IMF Committee of Twenty on International Monetary Reform
1977-79: Indian delegation to Aid-India Consortium Meetings
1980-82: Indo-Soviet joint planning group meeting
1982: Indo-Soviet monitoring group meeting
1993: Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting Cyprus 1993: Human Rights World Conference, Vienna

RECREATION

Gymkhana Club, New Delhi ; Life Member , India International Centre, New Delhi

PERSONAL PROFILE

Name : Dr. Manmohan Singh
DOB : September 26, 1932
Place of Birth : Gah (West Punjab)
Father : S. Gurmukh Singh
Mother : Mrs. Amrit Kaur
Married on : September 14, 1958
Wife : Mrs. Gursharan Kaur
Children : Three daughters


Our Prime Minister is possibly the most qualified PM all over the world.


Pass this to every INDIAN.... and be PROUD to be an INDIAN
...

Proud to have such an Educated Prime Minister....

MEN AND WOMEN

Men:

All men are extermely busy

* Although they are so busy, they still have time for women.
* Although they have time for women, they don t really care for them.
* Although they don t really care for them, they always have one Around.
* Although they always have one around them, they always try their Luck with others.
* Although they try their luck with others, they get really pissed off If the women leaves them.
* Although the women leaves them they still don t learn from their Mistakes and still try their luck with
others.


Women:

The most important thing for a woman is financial security.

* Although this is so important, they still go out and buy expensive Clothes.
* Although they always buy expensive clothes, they never have something To wear.
* Although they never have something to wear, they always dress Beautifully.
* Although they always dress beautifully, their clothes are always just An old rag .
* Although their clothes are always just an old rag , they still Expect you to compliment them.
* Although they expect you to compliment them, when you do, they don t Believe you.

Mobile Phones Secret Codes

Sharp Secret Codes
*01763*8371# (*01763*VER0#) — Firmware Version.
*01763*3641# (*01763*ENG1#) — Enable Engineer Mode hold pwr key to leave then disable.
*01763*3640# (*01763*ENG0#) — Disable Engineer Mode.
*01763*8781# (*01763*TST1#) — Test #1 (test early wdt looping to dump, need to remove battery from phone)
*01763*8782# (*01763*TST2#) — Test #2 (test irq dis looping to switch, resets itself)

BenQ-Siemens Secret Codes
Software version:
*#06#
to see more info, press softkey again
English menu:
*#0001#
Deutsch menu:
*#0049#

LG Secret Codes
LG all models test mode: Type 2945#*# on the main screen.
2945*#01*# Secret menu for LG
IMEI (ALL): *#06#
IMEI and SW (LG 510): *#07#
Software version (LG B1200): *8375#
Recount cheksum (LG B1200): *6861#
Factory test (B1200): #PWR 668
Simlock menu (LG B1200): 1945#*5101#
Simlock menu (LG 510W, 5200): 2945#*5101#
Simlock menu (LG 7020, 7010): 2945#*70001#

Samsung Secret Codes

Software version: *#9999#
IMEI number: *#06#
Serial number: *#0001#
Battery status- Memory capacity : *#9998*246#
Debug screen: *#9998*324# - *#8999*324#
LCD kontrast: *#9998*523#

Motorola Secret Codes

IMEI number:
*#06#
Code to lock keys. Press together *7
Note: [] (pause) means the * key held in until box appears.
Select phone line - (use this to write things below the provider name):
[] [] [] 0 0 8 [] 1 []
Add phonebook to main menu:
[] [] [] 1 0 5 [] 1 []
Add messages to main menu:
[] […]

Sony Ericsson Secret Codes

Sony Ericsson Secret Menu: -> * <- <- * <- *
(-> means press joystick, arrow keys or jogdial to the right and <- means left.)
You’ll see phone model, software info, IMEI, configuration info, sim lock status, REAL time clock, total call time and text labels.
You can also test your phones services and hardware from this […]

Nokia Secret Codes
On the main screen type
*#06# for checking the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity).
*#7780# reset to factory settings.
*#67705646# This will clear the LCD display(operator logo).
*#0000# To view software version.
*#2820# Bluetooth device address.
*#746025625# Sim clock allowed status.
*#62209526# - Display the MAC address of the WLAN adapter. This is available only in the newer devices that supports WLAN […]

General Nokia 8810 Secrets Codes
IMEI number
*#06#
Software Version
*#0000#

LIFE........LIVE IT !!!

LIFE!! Life is beautiful. it should be lived at all costs! we find happiness, laughter, sorrows, tears, heartaches, deep blows, jilts,BETRAYAL, despite all that i find that LIFE is still beautiful..... yes i repeat IT IS BEAUTIFUL..... I accept that at some turns of our life we find it difficult to cope with some kind of a situation, and sometimes get so much depressed with life that we say we wish to end this life, whats the use of being alive....... but after some time we regret having said so and we once again start enjoying this life the way it is!!!.......we then realise that pains and heartaches are for short durations be it tough and killing at the moment it hurts, despite that life is to be lived and enjoyed each minutes, say each second, every lapse of a moment is precious and should be LIVED..... ASK IT WITH THE PERSON WHO IS SICK AND IS TO BREATH OUT HIS LAST BREATH...... HE IS THE BETTER PLACED TO SAY HOW WONDERFUL IS THIS LIFE WE ARE LIVING.... AND THAT DYING PERSON HOW FAR IS LONGING TO BE BACK TO LIFE TO LIVE IT ONCE MORE......

So friends enjoy life with all that it gives, tears or laughter, accept all and you will find life more beautiful to live it..................­.........

We human beings have only one life to live; then why not celebrate and enjoy it? All of us are born with valuable gifts to make our lives happy; but we hardly make use of their full potential. If only we realise this, all of us can enjoy life.

Our domain is the present. Let us not allow ourselves to drift into the past, nor should we avoid the realities of the moment by thinking about the future.We know we cannot change the past, but we can ruin the present if we are not careful. So let us not squander the precious little lifetime given to us by feeling sorry for the past that NEVER returns, or worrying about the future that is UNCERTAIN. Let us try to optimise joy in our lives by focusing on the here and now.

WILL U BE VALENTINE


Valentine's Day is a day of love
Where love is as bright as the sun
We share kisses, and even a hug
With people we call our loved ones
Unrequited love is oh! so harsh
When the one you love doesn't love you
You feel you're left standing in the dark
Wishing this reality were untrue
Well that's why Valentine's Day is so great
It encourages you to show you care
It makes you just wanna say
I love you and will always be there
I once loved someone in this way
And I was encouraged on Valentine's
I went up to him, just to say
I would like you to be mine

Staying Safe in Cybercafes

The Internet is a great communications and research tool as well as a source of entertainment for millions of people around the world. It is also a security risk. Malicious computer programs have been used to attack computer systems hooked up to the worldwide Internet, damaging computer programs and gaining access to confidential information. News reports of these attacks have brought to the world new meanings for old words such as "virus," "worm," "infection," and "crash" - part of a frightening vocabulary that can intimidate those just beginning to use this new technology. What does it all mean and how can those less experienced Internet travelers navigate the hazards more safely?

Computer security has its similarities to the precautions most people take to secure their home, family, property, and person in an uncertain and sometimes dangerous world. Locking the doors at night, avoiding dangerous neighborhoods, and keeping an eye on one's wallet have their corollaries in sensible computer use.

The Threats

Your home computer is a popular target for intruders, because they want what you may have stored there: credit card numbers, bank account information, personal background information, and anything else they can find. With such information, intruders can take your money, even steal your identity. But it is not just money-related information they may be after. Intruders also want your computer's resources, meaning your hard disk space, your fast processor, and your Internet connection. They use these resources to attack other computers on the Internet. In fact, the more computers an intruder uses, the harder it is for law enforcement investigators to figure out where the attack is coming from. If intruders can't be found, they can't be stopped, and they can't be prosecuted.

Intruders go after home computers because typically they are easy targets. When connected to high-speed Internet connections that are always turned on, these computers are all the more easy for intruders to find and attack.

How do intruders break into your computer? In some cases, they send you e-mail with a virus. Reading that e-mail activates the virus, creating an opening that lets intruders see what is inside your computer. In other cases, they take advantage of a flaw or weakness in one of your computer's programs -- a vulnerability -- to gain access. Once inside, they often install new programs that let them continue to use your computer -- even after you have plugged the holes they used to get into your computer in the first place. These so-called backdoors are usually cleverly disguised to blend in with the other programs running on your computer.

So, think of your computer as you would your house or your apartment. For example, you know that if you have a loud conversation, someone next door can probably hear you. You probably routinely lock the doors and close the windows when you leave, and you don't give the keys to just anyone. If a stranger shows up at the door, you don't invite him inside until you have made some discriminating judgments about his intentions. If you're approached by a salesperson, you don't start handing him money until you've decided whether he's legitimate and his product or service is reliable and desirable. These are the same kinds of judgments that you must make when browsing the World Wide Web on the Internet and deciding whether the information you encounter and the messages you receive are helpful or harmful.

E-mail Security

Electronic mail - e-mail for short - is one of the biggest threats to your home computer. By understanding how e-mail works, and by taking precautions in how you go about reading and writing messages, you can reduce this security threat. When you exchange e-mail with someone, the messages sent between you and that person pass through several computers before they reach their destinations. Think of this conversation as taking place in an Internet "room," a very, very big room. Anyone, or, more accurately, any program, along the conversation path can probably understand what is being said, because most Internet conversations are not concealed or hidden in any way. Consequently, others may be listening in, capturing what you send, and using it for their own benefit.

E-mail-borne viruses and worms often arrive in attractive, enticing packages, much like the printed advertisements we receive via traditional mail designed to sell us something. By all appearances, an infected e-mail message appears to be something we want to read from someone we know, not a malicious virus or worm poised to destroy our data, exploit our hard drive, and hijack our computer's processing power.

There are steps you can take to help you decide what to do with every e-mail message with an attachment that you receive. You should only read a message that passes all of these tests:

  1. The Know test: Is the e-mail from someone that you know?
  2. The Received test: Have you received e-mail from this sender before?
  3. The Expect test: Were you expecting e-mail with an attachment from this sender?
  4. The Sense test: Do the subject line describing the contents of the e-mail message and the name of the attachment both make sense? For example, would you expect the sender -- let's say your mother -- to send you an e-mail message with the curious, possibly mystifying subject line "Here you have, ;o)" that contains a message with an attachment -- let's say "AnnaKournikova.jpg.vbs?" A message like that probably wouldn't make sense. You know your mother doesn't follow world tennis, and probably doesn't know who Kournikova is. In fact, it could be an instance of the so-called Anna Kournikova worm that began infecting computers around the world with malicious code in February 2001, and reading it would damage your system.
  5. The Virus test: Is this e-mail infected? To determine this, you need to install and run an anti-virus program.

Preventing Viruses

It's helpful to think about viruses in the same way that you think about that stranger who has come knocking at the door. It is your responsibility to profile or evaluate anyone who enters your living space. Anti-virus programs do much the same thing. These programs look at the contents of each file, searching for specific patterns that match a profile -- called a virus signature -- of something known to be harmful. For each file that matches a signature, the anti-virus program typically provides several options on how to respond, such as removing the offending patterns or destroying the file.

Viruses can reach your computer in many ways -- through floppy disks, CD-ROMs, e-mail, Web sites, and downloaded files. All need to be checked for viruses each time you use them. In other words, when you insert a floppy disk into the drive, check it for viruses. When you receive e-mail, check it for viruses using the tests described above. When you download a file from the Internet, check it for viruses before using it. Your anti-virus program may let you specify all of these as sources to check each time you encounter or use them. Your anti-virus program may also do this automatically.

You often have the chance to react to viruses when they've been discovered on your home computer. Depending upon the specific characteristics of the virus, you might be able to clean the infected file. Or you might be forced to destroy the file and load a new copy from your backups or original distribution media. Your options depend upon your choice of anti-virus program and the virus that's been detected.

Patching

Sometimes a would-be intruder may attempt to enter your home through a broken window. Software programs that you run on your computer can also have "broken windows," and cyberspace intruders are constantly searching to exploit such openings.

Just as you would repair the broken window to secure your home, you must fix the vulnerabilities in programs running on your computer. Most vendors provide patches, sometimes free of charge on their Web sites, for this purpose. When you purchase programs, it's a good idea to see if and how the vendor supplies patches. Just as appliance vendors often sell extended warranties for their products, some software vendors may also sell support for theirs. Vendors send notices to product owners when a safety-related problem has been discovered. Registering your purchase through the warranty card or online gives the vendor the information they need to contact you if there is a recall or a software fix.

Program vendors also provide a service allowing you to receive patch notices via e-mail. Through this type of service, you can learn about problems with your computer before intruders have the chance to exploit them. Consult the vendor's Web site to see how to get e-mail notices about patches. Some programs include features that automatically contact the vendor's Web sites to look for patches. These automatic updates tell you when patches are available, and they download and even install them.

While the patching process is getting easier, even to the point of automation, it is not yet foolproof. In some cases, installing a patch can cause another seemingly unrelated program to break. The challenge is to do as much homework as you can to learn what a patch is supposed to do and what problems it might cause once you've installed it.

Windows XP Tips & Tricks


1. It boasts how long it can stay up. Whereas previous versions of Windows were coy about how long they went between boots, XP is positively proud of its stamina. Go to the Command Prompt in the Accessories menu from the All Programs start button option, and then type 'systeminfo'. The computer will produce a lot of useful info, including the uptime. If you want to keep these, type 'systeminfo > info.txt'. This creates a file called info.txt you can look at later with Notepad. (Professional Edition only).

2. You can delete files immediately, without having them move to the Recycle Bin first. Go to the Start menu, select Run... and type 'gpedit.msc'; then select User Configuration, Administrative Templates, Windows Components, Windows Explorer and find the Do not move deleted files to the Recycle Bin setting. Set it. Poking around in gpedit will reveal a great many interface and system options, but take care -- some may stop your computer behaving as you wish. (Professional Edition only).

3. You can lock your XP workstation with two clicks of the mouse. Create a new shortcut on your desktop using a right mouse click, and enter 'rundll32.exe user32.dll,LockWorkStation' in the location field. Give the shortcut a name you like. That's it -- just double click on it and your computer will be locked. And if that's not easy enough, Windows key + L will do the same.

4. XP hides some system software you might want to remove, such as Windows Messenger, but you can tickle it and make it disgorge everything. Using Notepad or Edit, edit the text file /windows/inf/sysoc.inf, search for the word 'hide' and remove it. You can then go to the Add or Remove Programs in the Control Panel, select Add/Remove Windows Components and there will be your prey, exposed and vulnerable.

5. For those skilled in the art of DOS batch files, XP has a number of interesting new commands. These include 'eventcreate' and 'eventtriggers' for creating and watching system events, 'typeperf' for monitoring performance of various subsystems, and 'schtasks' for handling scheduled tasks. As usual, typing the command name followed by /? will give a list of options -- they're all far too baroque to go into here.

6. XP has IP version 6 support -- the next generation of IP. Unfortunately this is more than your ISP has, so you can only experiment with this on your LAN. Type 'ipv6 install' into Run... (it's OK, it won't ruin your existing network setup) and then 'ipv6 /?' at the command line to find out more. If you don't know what IPv6 is, don't worry and don't bother.

7. You can at last get rid of tasks on the computer from the command line by using 'taskkill /pid' and the task number, or just 'tskill' and the process number. Find that out by typing 'tasklist', which will also tell you a lot about what's going on in your system.

8. XP will treat Zip files like folders, which is nice if you've got a fast machine. On slower machines, you can make XP leave zip files well alone by typing 'regsvr32 /u zipfldr.dll' at the command line. If you change your mind later, you can put things back as they were by typing 'regsvr32 zipfldr.dll'.

9. XP has ClearType -- Microsoft's anti-aliasing font display technology -- but doesn't have it enabled by default. It's well worth trying, especially if you were there for DOS and all those years of staring at a screen have given you the eyes of an astigmatic bat. To enable ClearType, right click on the desktop, select Properties, Appearance, Effects, select ClearType from the second drop-down menu and enable the selection. Expect best results on laptop displays. If you want to use ClearType on the Welcome login screen as well, set the registry entry HKEY_USERS/.DEFAULT/Control Panel/Desktop/FontSmoothingType to 2.

10. You can use Remote Assistance to help a friend who's using network address translation (NAT) on a home network, but not automatically. Get your pal to email you a Remote Assistance invitation and edit the file. Under the RCTICKET attribute will be a NAT IP address, like 192.168.1.10. Replace this with your chum's real IP address -- they can find this out by going to www.whatismyip.com -- and get them to make sure that they've got port 3389 open on their firewall and forwarded to the errant computer.

11. You can run a program as a different user without logging out and back in again. Right click the icon, select Run As... and enter the user name and password you want to use. This only applies for that run. The trick is particularly useful if you need to have administrative permissions to install a program, which many require. Note that you can have some fun by running programs multiple times on the same system as different users, but this can have unforeseen effects.

12. Windows XP can be very insistent about you checking for auto updates, registering a Passport, using Windows Messenger and so on. After a while, the nagging goes away, but if you feel you might slip the bonds of sanity before that point, run Regedit, go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER/Software/Microsoft/Windows/Current Version/Explorer/Advanced and create a DWORD value called EnableBalloonTips with a value of 0.

13. You can start up without needing to enter a user name or password. Select Run... from the start menu and type 'control userpasswords2', which will open the user accounts application. On the Users tab, clear the box for Users Must Enter A User Name And Password To Use This Computer, and click on OK. An Automatically Log On dialog box will appear; enter the user name and password for the account you want to use.

14. Internet Explorer 6 will automatically delete temporary files, but only if you tell it to. Start the browser, select Tools / Internet Options... and Advanced, go down to the Security area and check the box to Empty Temporary Internet Files folder when browser is closed.

15. XP comes with a free Network Activity Light, just in case you can't see the LEDs twinkle on your network card. Right click on My Network Places on the desktop, then select Properties. Right click on the description for your LAN or dial-up connection, select Properties, then check the Show icon in notification area when connected box. You'll now see a tiny network icon on the right of your task bar that glimmers nicely during network traffic.

16. The Start Menu can be leisurely when it decides to appear, but you can speed things along by changing the registry entry HKEY_CURRENT_USER/Control Panel/Desktop/MenuShowDelay from the default 400 to something a little snappier. Like 0.

17. You can rename loads of files at once in Windows Explorer. Highlight a set of files in a window, then right click on one and rename it. All the other files will be renamed to that name, with individual numbers in brackets to distinguish them. Also, in a folder you can arrange icons in alphabetised groups by View, Arrange Icon By... Show In Groups.

18. Windows Media Player will display the cover art for albums as it plays the tracks -- if it found the picture on the Internet when you copied the tracks from the CD. If it didn't, or if you have lots of pre-WMP music files, you can put your own copy of the cover art in the same directory as the tracks. Just call it folder.jpg and Windows Media Player will pick it up and display it.

19. Windows key + Break brings up the System Properties dialogue box; Windows key + D brings up the desktop; Windows key + Tab moves through the taskbar buttons.

20. The next release of Windows XP, codenamed Longhorn, is due out late next year or early 2003 and won't be much to write home about. The next big release is codenamed Blackcomb and will be out in 2003/2004.

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